Monday, November 19, 2007




  • Measurement is the process by which we ascertain the quantity of a thing.

  • It is the assignment of a numerical index to the thing we assess.

  • Eg. Raju got 70 marks in text paper. Doesn’t mean that he is clever in Maths. The score 70 is simply a measurement of his achievement in Maths.
  • "Measurement is the process of assigning symbols to dimensions of phenomena in order to characterise the status of a phenomena as precisely as possible”
    - M. Brad field
  • “Measurement is defined as the assignment of one of a set of numbers to each of a set of persons or objects according to certain established rules. The set of numbers depends up on the nature of the characteristics being measured and up on the type of measuring instrument used” - Prof. Richard.H.Lideman
  • Measurement process is conceptually simple. The only requirements are a set of objects, a set of quantitative numbers, and possibly a rule for the assignment of a number to each objects.


  • Evaluation is the process by which we judge the value of a thing.It is the process of determining the extent to which an educational objective attained. It is something more than measurement.
  • In order to judge the performance of Raju in Maths test, we seek more information such as :
  • “How many pupils took that test?
    Which is the highest score?
    Which is the lowest mark?
    What is the class average?
    Suppose “25 pupils took the test. 98 is the highest score, and 84 is the class average. What will be our judgment? We now place Raju far down in the rank list, as a poor achiever.
    This is our evaluation of Raju’s performance in Mathematics.

“Evaluation is the assignment of symbols to phenomenon in order to characterise the worth or value of a phenomenon, usually with reference to some social, cultural or scientific standards”

- James . M. Brad fiels

Distinction between Measurement and Evaluation

  • Measurement is Quantitative.
  • It refers only “how much” without any reference to purpose, past or future. It only concerned the present.
  • Measurement is objective and impersonal. It doesn’t change with change of individuals.
  • Precise and scientific.
  • Not a continues process. It is occasional. Tests are conducted only occasionally to get a measure of pupils achievement.
  • Measurement is independent of Evaluation.
  • Scope of measurement is limited.
  • Evaluation is Qualitative. Judgment of values. It refers to “how good” with
    reference to purpose, present, past and future.
  • Subjective and personal to a great extent .
  • Interpretive and Philosophical.
  • Evaluation is a continuous process
  • Teachers are evaluation the pupils ever and anon.
  • Correct evaluation depended up on correct measurement.
  • Scope of evaluation is unlimited.

Educational Measurement

  • Measurement in education is much more than subjective and complex than physical measurement.
  • In physical measurement the units refer to a zero point .
  • Physical measurement is complete in itself and we can measure the whole amount .
  • Physical measurement is absolute and conveys a defined meaning .
  • Educational measurement is concerned mainly with mental development and hence it is not so much objective definite and precise.
  • It is done according to some pre-defined standards which may be much subjective and far from being specific.

Characteristics of Educational Measurement

  • In educational Measurement there is no absolute zero point. Measurement is relative to some arbitrary standard.
  • The unit of measurement is not definite.
  • They do not have same value for every person.
    The measurement in education conveys a sense of infinity.
  • We can never claim to measure the whole achievement of intelligence of a child.
  • Educational Measurement is indirect. We measure achievement through some kind of performance.

Functions of Educational Measurement

  • For admission : Many institution give admission to student only after measuring their educational achievement.
  • For classification and Comparison : Students are classified for different courses or programmes according to their achievement and ability. Classify them a brilliant, average, backward on the basis of educational measurement.
  • For Prediction : We predict the performance of pupil by educational measurement.
  • For Diagnosis : We conduct tests to measure the weakness of pupil in specific areas. This helps the teacher to identify specific weakness in children and plan for remedial teaching.
  • For Research: No educational researches are possible without some sort of educational measurement.

Purpose of Educational Evaluation

Prof. N.M. Downie lists the following purpose of Educational Evaluation

  • To Provide information for grading, reporting to parents and promoting students .
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of a single teaching method or to apprise the relative worth of several methods.
  • To Motivate the students .
  • To select the students .
  • To evaluate the entire educational institution and to show how several of its aspects could be improved.
  • To collect information for effective educational vocational counseling.

Broader view of the purpose of educational Evaluation

  • In respect of the pupil
    i. In selection, classification, certification of pupils by diagnosing their strength and weakness
    ii. To determine the current status of the pupil
    iii. Determining the rate at which the individual student is progressing (Using periodic evaluation)
    iv. To find out the aptitude of a pupil
    In respect of the teacher
    i. To know how for teaching is successful and methodology is effective
    ii. To find out the individual differences
    In respect of Instructional procedures
    i. Evaluation implies objective based instruction and continuous assessment of the progress of pupil
    ii. This improves teaching and learning
    In respect of school programmes
    i. Evaluation is important in the overall appraisal of the total school programmes
    In respect of improvement of public relations
    i. Pupil evaluation may also be used as a basis, through reports to parents and school patrons, for the improvement of public relation and the mobilization of public opinion.

Process of Evaluation

  • Formation of the objectives of education.
  • Stating objectives in terms of behaviour modification .
  • Imparting learning experience in accordance with the objectives .
  • Devising tools of evaluation in accordance with the objectives and learning experience.
  • Arriving at results by using the above tools .
  • Interpretation of results .
  • Modification to be suggested .

Evaluation Procedure

  • Step I: Formulating objectives of teaching and translating them in terms of desired
    changes to be brought about in the child.
  • Step II: Determining and providing learning experience appropriate to the objectives.
  • Step III: Preparing tool of evaluation to measure or assess the extent to which the
    contemplated learning experience have actually taken place in the child.

Relation among Educational Objectives, learning experience and Evaluation

From the above figure of Triangle of Evaluation it is clear that:
· All the three are inter-related
· The objectives of teaching objectives constitute the central point of any evaluation process

  • Learning experience is based on Objectives.
  • Learning Experience clarifies objectives.
  • Evaluation is based on objectives.
  • Evaluation clarifies objectives.
  • Evaluation gives evidence on learning experience.
  • Learning experience gives hinds to the nature of situation for evaluation.

    Educational objectives
  • Objectives of teaching constitute the pivot of ant teaching procedure.
  • Objectives tell the pupil what he or she is expected to do.
  • Any statement of objectives must specify observable preferably measurable changes in the learner’s behaviour at the end of the course.
  • Objectives are specific, immediate and attainable goals. · “By educational objectives we mean explicit formulation of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process that is the ways in which they will change in their thinking, their feeling and their actions”
    - B.S. Bloom

    Formulation of Educational Objectives – Factors involved…

  • The need, interest and the present level of pupil’s development .
  • The result obtained from the study of the conditions and problems of contemporary life .
  • The nature and scope of subject matter .
  • The opinions of specialist of the subject matter .
  • The philosophy of education of the school .
  • Psychology of learning

Learning Experience

  • “Learning experience is pupil activities planned with the specific purpose of producing the desired behaviour changes in them” .
  • Effective learning depends upon careful planning of learning experiences .
  • Learning experience intimately connected with educational objectives .
  • In course of instruction, the learning experience changes the behaviour in terms of established goals.
  • Pupil participation is a vital factor in planning learning experiences. (The change in behaviour most of the time due to the interaction between the learner and the learning situation)

Criteria for good learning experiences

  • Appropriateness to behaviour changes defined under objectives .
  • Appropriateness to content are prescribed .
  • Adequacy and effectiveness in bringing about the desired changes.
  • Practicability

Learning experiences – New approach

  • Child centered
  • Life centered
  • Teacher is facilitator
  • Scope for continuous evaluation
  • Joyful experience
  • Scope for creative thinking, logical thinking, reflective thinking

Not complete ...... under consrtuction...................