Wednesday, January 2, 2008


  • Major Evaluation Techniques in education are…
    1. Observation
    2. Interview
    3. Case study
    4. Sociometry
    5. Projective Techniques
    6. Testing

1. Observation

  • The teacher observes the behaviors of the student, if any relevant feature notice in behavior should be recorded as objectively as possible.

  • In observation subjectivity of the observer will be often reflected in the judgment.

  • The subjectivity can be reduced to the minimum by use of objective tools for observation.

  • The subjectivity can be reduced by pooling together the result of the observation made by more then one person for a considerably long period.
    Different types of observation

  • Controlled observation
    Observation under controlled condition.

  • Uncontrolled observation
    Observation of events as they naturally occur.

  • Participatory observation
    Observe the students by the observer while participating in the same activity with the students.

2. Interview

  • In interview the teacher tries to observe the pupil’s behavior directly and gathers information orally.

  • The interviews also have the possibility of being subjective.

  • Conducting the interview with the help of a scientifically designed schedule and by involving more interviewers whose ratings could be pooled together, the result of an interview can be made objective.

  • Interview may be considered as complementary to other techniques.
    Types of Interviews

  • Structured interviews
    Interview conducted on the basis of some pre-determined format.

  • Unstructured interviews
    Interview conducted not on the basis pre-determined format.

  • Diagnostic interview
    Used to understand the pupil’s problems.

  • Therapeutic interview
    Used to plan suitable therapy.

  • Counseling
    Used to solve personal, educational or vocational problems.

3. Case study

  • The most reliable method of studying a single child in its totality.

  • Case study is the technique of collecting all sort of necessary information about a child with a view to studying and solving his deep-rooted problems.

  • Case study synthesis and interpret the data collected from several sources using various methods in order to studying the problems of the child.

  • It helps the teacher to handle more effectively with his pupil.

4. Sociomerty

  • Developed by J.L. Moreno for assessing social relationships among the members in a social group.

  • It is methods of assessing the receptive or rejective tendencies of the members in a social group.

  • In this method, children are asked to write the names of those members of the group, with whom thy would like to play or work

  • Using this data construct a sociogram.

  • This sociogram reveals information about the structure of the group.

  • The sociogram help the teacher to identify the star, cliques and isolates.
    Stars are those who are chosen by many.

    Cliques are small groups who have chosen exclusively among themselves.

    Isolates are those who are chosen by nobody

  • Using sociometry, the teacher can understand whether his class is a well knit-group or a loosely knit one.

  • It will help the teacher to prevent social maladjustment in children and promote social cohesion.

  • This technique can be used as a complementary technique while making case studies and attempting diagnosis.

5. Projective Techniques

  • In projective technique, provide some stimuli (like above pictures) that might make respond in such a way as to project inner self in an unconscious manner.

  • The responses may be interpreted and conclusion drawn.

  • Ink blot test, Termatic Apperception Test (TAT) are examples of projective technique.

6. Testing

Performance of the student assessed by the help of different types of testing tools.