Saturday, November 15, 2008


            You know that the economic prosperity and good quality of any nation depends upon the development of human resources of that nation. The significant fact in the development of manpower resource refers to the competencies and the level on which these competencies are imparted. You also know that it largely depends on those who develop these competencies. Therefore, for this purpose we need highly competent teachers for imparting these competencies. It is essential that teachers imparting these competencies should have the capability to perform their task efficiently. For this, they need to acquire requisite competencies themselves.Here we will attempt to understand as to what competencies are essential for becoming better teacher and how these competencies can be imparted.
Teaching - Meaning
  • Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning.
  • Teaching is the communication between two or more persons, who influence each other by their ideas and learn something in the process of interaction.
  • Teaching is to fill the minds of the learner by information and knowledge of facts for future use.
  • Teaching is the process in which learner, teacher and other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goals.
  • Teaching is to cause the child to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and also desired ways of living in the society.
  • Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning.
  • Teaching is to cause the child to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and also desired ways of living in the society.
Teaching : Definition
“Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter.” - (H.C. Morrison, 1934)
"Teaching means many different things, that teaching act varies from person to person and from situation to situation. " -            (Bar, 1961)
"The behaviour or activities of persons as they go about doing whatever is required of teachers, particularly those activities which are concerned with the guidance or direction of learning of others." - (Ryan, 1965)
"Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement under which students learn. They learn without teaching in their natural environment, but teachers arrange special contingencies which expedite learning and hastening the appearance of behaviour which would otherwise be acquired slowly or making scene of the appearance of behaviour which might otherwise never occur." - (B.F. Skinner. 1968)
"Teaching as an act of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the ways in which other persons can or will behave." -             (N.L. Gage, 1963)
What is a teaching skill ?
·   A teaching skill is that behaviour of the teacher which facilitates pupils’ learning directly or indirectly.
·      A teaching skill includes all arts and behaviour of the teacher which maximizes pupils’ learning.
·     A teaching skill is that art of the teacher which makes communication between the teacher and pupils sufficiently.
Attempts have been made to list teaching skills. Allen and Ryan listed the following teaching skills at Stanford University in the U.S.A.

1.         Stimulus Variation
2.         Set induction
3.         Closure
4.         Teacher silence and non-verbal cues
5.         Reinforcing pupil participation
6.         Fluency in questioning
7.         Probing questioning
8.         Use of higher questions
9.         Divergent questions
10.      Recognizing and attending behaviour
11.      Illustrating and use of examples
12.      Lecturing
13.      Planned repetition
14.      Completeness of communication

B.K. Passi has given the following list of Teaching Skills in his book “Becoming Better Teacher; Micro-teaching Approach” :

1.         Writing instructional objectives
2.         Introducing a lesson
3.         Fluency in questioning
4.         Probing questioning
5.         Explaining
6.         Illustrating with examples
7.         Stimulus variation
8.         Silence and non-verbal cues
9.         Reinforcement
10.      Increasing pupil participation
11.      Using black board
12.      Achieving Closure
13.      Recognizing attending behavior

NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) in its publication Core Teaching Skills (1982) has laid stress on the following teaching skills…

  1. writing instructional objectives
  2. Organizing the content
  3. Creating set for introducing the lesson
  4. introducing a lesson
  5. Structuring classroom questions
  6. Question delivery and its distribution
  7. Response management
  8. explaining
  9. illustrating with examples
  10. Using teaching aids
  11. Stimulus variation
  12. Pacing of the lesson
  13. Promoting pupil participation
  14. Use of  blackboard
  15. Achieving closure of the lesson
  16. Giving assignments
  17. Evaluating the pupil’s progress
  18. Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures
  19. Management of the class 

Component of Teaching Skill
Component of teaching Skill is the sub-skill to be practiced or maintained to achieve the mail skill
Core Teaching Skills
It is not possible to train all the pupil teachers in all these skills in any training programme because of the constraints of time and funds. Therefore a set of teaching skills which cuts across the subject areas has been identified. They have been found very useful for every teacher. The set of these skills are known as CORE TEACHING SKILLS
Core Teaching Skills are:

1.     Skill of Probing Questions
2.     Skill of Explaining
3.     Skill of Illustrating With Examples
4.     Skill of Stimulus Variation
5.     Skill of Reinforcement
6.     Skill of Classroom Management
7.     Skill of Using Blackboard
8.     Skill of Introducing a lesson

Core Teaching Skills and their Components
Probing Questions
Prompting, seeking further information, redirection, focusing, increasing critical awareness.
Clarity, continuity, relevance to content using beginning and concluding statements, covering essential points.
Illustrating with
Simple, relevant and interesting examples appropriate media, use of inducts, deductive approach.
Stimulus variation
Body movements, gestures, change in speech pattern, change in interaction style, pausing, focusing, oral-visual switching.
Use of praise words and statements, accepting and using pupils’ idea, repeating and rephrasing, extra vertical cues, use of pleasant and approving gestures and expressions, writing pupils’ answer on the black board.
Classroom Management
Call pupils bynames, Makenorms of classroom behaviour, attending behaviour reinforced, clarity of direction, check non-attending behaviour, keep pupils in Eye Span, check inappropriate behaviour immediately.
Use of blackboard
Legible, neat and adequate with reference to content covered.

Meaning and Definition of Microteaching
  • Meaning

      Microteaching is a procedure in which a student teacher practices teaching with a reduce number of pupils in a reduced period of time with emphasis on a narrow and specific teaching skill.
       “Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and time”            - D.W.Allen(1966)
       Microteaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.- D.W. Allen & A.W.Eve (1968)
       Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five pupils for a small period of 5 to 20 minutes.                                                  - L.C. Singh (1977)
Objectives of Microteaching
       To enable teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions.
       To enable teacher trainees to master a number of teaching skills.
       To enable teacher trainees to gain confidence in teaching.
Characteristic of Microteaching
       Microteaching is a highly individualized training device
       Microteaching is an experiment in the field of teacher education which has been incorporated in the practice teaching schedule
       It is a student teaching skill training technique and not a teaching technique or method
       Microteaching is micro in the sense that it scale down the complexities of real teaching
       Practicing one skill at a time
       Reducing the class size to 5 – 10 pupil
       Reducing the duration of lesson to 5 – 10 minutes
       Limiting the content to a single concept
       immediate feedback helps in improving, fixing and motivating learning
       The student  are providing immediate feedback in terms of peer group feedback, tape recorded/CCT

Phases of Microteaching Procedure
1.     Knowledge Acquisition Phase (Pre-Active Phase)
            It includes the activities such as;
Ø  Provide knowledge about teaching skills.
Ø  Observe the demonstration of teaching skill.
Ø  Analyze and discuss the demonstration of the teaching skill.
2.     Skill Acquisition Phase (Inter-active Phase)
        It includes the activities such as;
Ø  Planning and preparation of micro lesson for a skill.
Ø  Practicing the skill.
Ø  Evaluation of the practiced skill (Feedback).
Ø  Re-plan , Re-teach and re-feedback till the desired level of skill is achieved.
3.     Transfer Phase (Post –Active Phase)
Ø  Giving opportunity to use the mastered skill in normal class room teaching.
Ø  Integrate the different skill practiced
Steps of Microteaching
  1. Orientation of the student teachers
   Providing necessary information and theoretical background about microteaching such as :
   Concept of Microteaching
   Significance of using of microteaching
   Procedure of Microteaching
   Requirements of microteaching

  1. Discussion of Teaching Skills
   Discuss various skills.
   Discuss component behaviour of teaching skills

  1. Selection of a Particular Teaching Skill
   Persuade and help the trainees to select a particular skill.
   The student teacher may be given necessary background for the observation of a model of demonstration lesson on the selected particular skill
  1. Presentation of a Model Demonstration Lesson
   Presentation of model lesson can be done by;
o      A Teacher Educator or an expert can demonstrate the use of the skill.
o      By exhibiting a film or a video tape.
o      By making the trainees listen an audiotape.
  1. Observation of the Model Lesson and Criticism.
   Observation should be with an observation schedule.
   Careful analysis of the observation of model lesson helps the trainees to know the desirable and undesirable component behavior of the skill thoroughly
6          6. Preparation of Micro Lesson Plan.
   Prepare a micro lesson plan by selecting the proper content to practice the demonstrated skill.
                 7. Creation of Microteaching Setting.
   Should provide proper facilities.
   Pupils: Real pupils/Peer Trainees (Number of pupils- 5-10(Normal:6)
   Available Time         :6 Minutes.
   Supervisor  : Teacher Educator and Peer Trainees.
           8. Practice of the Skill (Teaching)
   Trainee teaches micro lesson for 6 minutes.
   Teaching is observed by the teacher educator and peer both with an observation schedule.
   Lesson can be taped on a video or audio tape for providing feedback
            9. Providing Feedback
   Feedback is provided in terms of the component behaviours.
   Mechanical gadgets can also be used.
   Duration :6 Minutes.
            10.  Re-planning.
   Re-plans micro lesson in view of feedback.
   Available Time:12 Minutes.
             11.  Re-teaching.
   Teacher trainee re-teaches micro lesson on the basis of re-plan and re-arranged settings.
   Duration :6 Minutes.
             12.  Providing Re-Feedback
   Trainee gets re-feedback on the basis of performance in the re-taught micro lesson.
   Duration :6 Minutes.
             13.  Repetition of the Microteaching Cycle.
                        Time duration for the microteaching is;
Teach             : 6 Minutes.
   Feedback       : 6 Minutes.
   Re-Plan          :12 Minutes.      Total 36 mts.   
   Re-Teach        : 6 Minutes.

Re-Feedback  : 6 Minutes.


Plan :                           This involves the selection of the topic and related content of such a nature in which the use of components of the skill under practice may be made easily and conveniently. The topic is analyzed into different activities of the teacher and the pupils. The activities are planned in such a logical sequence where maximum application of the components of a skill is possible.
Teach :                         This  involves the attempts of the teacher trainee to use the components of the skill in suitable situations coming up in the process of teaching-learning as per his/her planning of activitieó. If the situation is different and not as visualized(in the planning of the activities, the  teacher should modify his/her behaviour ás per the demand of the situation in the Class. He should have the courage and confidence to handle the situation arising in the class effectively.
Feedback :                   This term refers to giving information to the teacher trainee about his performance. The information includes the points of strength as well as weakness relating to his/her performance. This helps the teacher trainee to improve upon his/her performance in the desired direction.
Re-plan :                      The teacher trainee replans his lesson incorporating the points of strength and removing the points not skillfully handled during teaching in the previous attempt either on the same topic or on another topic suiting to the teacher trainee for improvement.
Re-teach :                     This involves teaching to the same group of pupils if the topic is changed or to a different group of pupils if the topic is the same. This is done to remove boredom or monotony of the pupil. The teacher trainee teaches the class with renewed courage and confidence to perform better than the previous attempt.
Re-feedback :               This is the most important component of Micro-teaching for behaviour modification of teacher trainee in the desired direction in each and every skill practice.
14.  Integration of Teaching Skills (Link Practice)
            When mastery has been attained in various skills ,the teacher trainee is allowed to teach the skills together. This separate training programme to integrate various isolated skills is known as ‘Link Practice’
ü  It helps the trainee to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in the micro teaching sessions.
ü  It helps to bridge the gap between training in isolated teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by a student teacher.
ü  Desirable Number of Pupils       :15-20
ü  Preferable Duration                   :20minutes.
ü  Desirable Number of Skills        :3-4 Skills

       Link practice or integration of skills can be done in two ways;
1.     Integration in parts
                                    3 or 4 teaching skills are integrated and transferred them into a lesson of 15-20 minutes duration. And again 3 or 4 skills are integrated and are transferred all the skills to one lesson.
2.     Integration as a whole
Student teacher integrates all the individual teaching skills by taking them as a whole and prepares a macro lesson then transferred them into a real teaching situation

Merits of Microteaching

   It helps to develop and master important teaching skills.
   It helps to accomplish specific teacher competencies.
   It caters the need of individual differences in the teacher training.
   It is more effective in modifying teacher behaviour.
   It is an individualized training technique.
   It employs real teaching situation for developing skills.
   It reduces the complexity of teaching process as it is a scaled down teaching.
   It helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching

Limitations of Microteaching

   It is skill oriented; Content not emphasized.
   A large number of trainees cannot be given the opportunity for re-teaching and re-planning.
   It is very time consuming technique.
   It requires special classroom setting.
   It covers only a few specific skills.
   It deviates from normal classroom teaching.
   It may raise administrative problem while arranging micro lessons

Microteaching Vs Traditional Classroom teaching

   Teaching is Relatively Simple 
   Carried out in controlled situation
   The Class Consist of a small group of students          
   takes up one skill at a time
   Teaching time is 5 to 10 mts.
    Immediate Feed back provided
   Provision for re-teaching
   Students gains confidence in teaching
Traditional Class room Teaching
   Teaching is Complex Activity
   Carried out in uncontrolled Situation
   Classroom consist of less than 35 to 40 students
   Teacher practices several skill at a time
   Teaching time is 40 to 45 mts
   No immediate feedback
   No provision for re- teaching
   Students usually tensed and scared