Sunday, April 19, 2009

Educational Management

Management – Meaning

  • The collective body of those who manage or direct any enterprises.
  • Management means steering an organization towards specified objectives.
  • Management in simple terms means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.
  • Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management
  • Management comprises (factions of management)
    • planning,
    • organizing
    • Controlling
    • decision making
    • Motivating, Leadership
    • Communicating
    • Performance
    • Appraisal
    • Linking rewards with performance
    • Human resource Development


  1. planning
  • most basic and extensive process in management
  • it means deciding in advance what result are to be achieved and what actions are to be taken for the same and who should take such actions, where , when and how.
  1. organizing
  • it is the process of grouping people and activities at the disposal of an organization.
  • in a judicious manner, people and activities have to be grouped to produce the best results by following the most appropriate sequence of events.
  1. Controlling
  • Means checking the progress of the plans and correcting any deviation that might occur along way of implementation of plans.
  • Control ensure quality, appropriateness of means and action.
  1. decision making
  • This means converting intentions to action plans on a rational basis, on the basis of a perceived relationship between actions and outcomes.
  • Decision making is the essence of all management.
  1. Motivating
  • This means the continuous process of generation sufficient interest to each individual to carry out actions that can be benefit the organization.
  • As strategies for motivation both monetary and non-monetary rewards are used.
  1. Leadership
  • It is a process of making ordinary people to extra ordinary things which they would not accomplish if left alone.
  • Leadership involves skills in inspiring, integrating divergent interest, building self confident and morale etc.
  1. Communicating
  • Communication is aimed at making others understand what they are expected to do and at ensuring whether they are doing it or not.
  1. Performance Appraisal
  • Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating the contribution on an employee for the purpose of determining his rewards and developmental needs.
  • Performance appraisal can done through:
    • Establishing acceptable levels of performance in qualitative and quantitative terms.
    • Adopting effective methods of assessment.
    • Using performance appraisal data for various managerial objectives
    • Giving feed back to the employee to help him to modify his behavior in the organization.
  1. Linking rewards with performance
  • This means motivate employees to perform better by giving rewards to them.
  • Where such linking is absent, fall in standards and failure to achieve excellence in performance are natural outcomes.
  1. Human resource Development
  • This is the process of helping employee to develop their competence in a continuous manner, for the benefit of themselves, their organization, and the society.
  • Career planning, career guidance, setting of standards for performance, performance appraisal, feedback on performance, training programmes etc. are some strategies for human recourse development.

Management – Definitions

  • "Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating , motivating and controlling the effort of others towards a specific objective. Management is what management does. It is the task of planning, executing and controlling."                             – James, L.Lundy
  • Management is the distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, activating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of human being and other resources"

    – George, R.Terry

Educational Management

  • The management in education field.

Factors influenced the development of Educational management

  • Growing complexity of educational enterprise
  • Modern technological development
  • Ever changing pattern of education
  • Rising cost of education
  • Increasing politicization of education
  • Social changes

Aspects of Educational Management (5M's)

  • Management of Men
    • This include staff, student and their parents, members of the community, members of the governing body and developmental officials.
  • Management of Money
    • This concerns with finance.
  • Management of machines
    • This include different kind of machinery for carrying out programmes related to work experience and Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW)
  • Management of Material
    • This includes a variety of material in the form of furniture and stationery etc. exist in the educational institutions.
  • Management of Method
    • This means organization of ideas and principles into school system-curriculum, methods of teaching


Management – Principles

  • Principle of cooperation
  • Principle of coordination
  • Principle of democratic philosophy
  • Principle of equality
  • Principle of freedom
  • Principle of flexibility
  • Principle of human relations
  • Principle of justice
  • Principle of leadership
  • Principle of optimism
  • Principle of optimum utility
  • Principle of professional growth of the staff
  • Principle of recognition of individual worth
  • Principle of sharing responsibility
  • Principle of values
  • Principle of budgeting
  • Principle of economy

Application of the principles of management to education

  • Optimum utilization of man and material
  • Management action involves not only the most use of the material resources but also of human resources.
  • Optimum utilization of man and material implies the identification of available resources in the community maintaining available resources and developing accountability towards control and monitoring resources.
  • The human elements in management of education includes
    • Children
    • Parents
    • Educational planners and administrators
    • Teachers
    • Other employers
  • By coordinating the functions of these human elements in a proper way we can have the optimum utilization of human resources.
  • The material element includes
    • Money
    • Buildings
    • School ground
    • equipments


  • Supervision is a planned programme for improvement of institutions.

Aims of supervision

  • To provide professional leadership to educational institutions so as to improve their work and put them on right direction and path.
  • To set suitable goals for educational institutions.
  • To apprise the work of educational institutions and to give valid criticism
  • To offer technical service to teachers in the form of instructional aids and suggestions.
  • To promote professional growth of teachers by providing in-service training to them.

Types of supervision

  • Corrective type
    • Here the intention is to find out what is wrong with the teaching learning process.
  • Preventive type
    • Under this the supervisor anticipates the difficulties of headmasters or teachers, and help them to avoid these difficulties.
  • Creative type
    • This aims at liberating teachers fro set procedures and makes him self-reliant and enthusiastic in his work