Sunday, April 19, 2009

institutional Planning

institutional Planning – meaning

  • An institutional plan is a programme of development and improvement prepared by an educational institution on the basis of its felt needs and the resources available or likely to be made available.

Objectives of Institutional Planning

  • Improvement of Instruction
  • Improvement of library equipment and facilities in school
  • Optimum utilization of existing resources.
  • Harnessing community resources and goodwill to improve and develop the school.
  • Providing an opportunity to the local community, school staff and student to join hands and improve the school.
  • Developing co-curricular programmes in the school like work experience, social service and adult educational programmes, and youth service which will make the school a community centre.

Institutional Planning – Steps

  • Identifying the needs of the institution
  • Pooling together the resources available
  • Preparing a plan of action
  • Implementing the plan
  • Evaluating and taking corrective actions.

School plant

  • The term school plant includes the site, building, furniture and equipment

The site

  • The criteria to be observed in selecting a school site.
    • It should be within the easy reach of the pupils.
    • It should have public transportation facilities.
    • It should not be too near to bus stand, railway station, factories, cinema theaters, liquor shops or cremation grounds.
    • It should be free from disturbing noises.
    • It should be located in a healthy environment.
    • It should provide safe and healthy conditions to the pupils.
    • It should be sufficient to meet all the educational requirements of the pupils, including play ground.

The School Building

  • It should be beautiful and strong
  • It should meet all the educational requirements.
  • It must provide all facilities for curricular and co-curricular activities.
  • It should be safeguard the health and safety of the pupils and teachers.
  • Each unit of the school building should be designed to suit the purpose, but it should have a satisfactory co-ordination with other units.
  • It should be adaptable to the changing requirements of education.

Design of Class Room

  • Apart from the regular class rooms there should be special rooms for lab, store room for science equipments and materials, libraries, a school hall, teachers' room, headmaster's room, office room, dining hall, waiting room for girls, visitors room, auditorium, toilets etc.
  • While planning, rooms for special subjects should be located close to each other
    • Science room and laboratory should be adjacent.
    • Library in central place
    • Headmaster's room should be so placed that he could have an overall view of the whole school campus from his room.
    • There should be separate toilets for teachers, boys an girls.


  • While planning class rooms the following requirements should be ensured.
    • Size: A class room should be large enough to accommodate 40 to 45 pupils. The dimension may 7m x 7m
    • Lighting: Every room should be well-lighted.
    • Windows: Windows should admit enough light and air into the class room. The window area should not be less than one-fifth of the floor area.
    • Ventilation: Ventilation can be ensured by two method – natural or artificially produced by use of fan.
    • Black Board: Easel black board is better than wall black board because easel blackboard can be moved from one place to another and their angle can be changed to suit the light.
    • Cleaning: The classrooms must be cleaned daily.

Furniture and Equipment

  • Lack of good furniture might result in poor postures of children, which in turn can affect their health, efficiency and even attitude.
  • The seats and other furniture should suit the age and body measurement of pupils.
  • While arranging the furniture the following points must be in mind
    • The desks should be arranged at right angles to the window walls
    • Each student should be allowed atleast 45 cms of space with enough moving space in between group of desks, and between desk and walls.
    • The teacher must be able to move freely among these in order to give individual attention to pupils.
    • There should not be more than six rows of desks.
  • There should be sufficient black boards in each class room.
  • There should be shelves and almirahs for keeping the books of pupils and for storing equipments.


  • "A good library is one that keeps books on every subject – but selected books ; where the librarian is a true devotee, devote of ulterior seeking, from pride in the mere loading of shelves, capable of discriminating rejection"

    - Tagore

  • Library is the store house of books
  • No system of education can succeed without a well stocked library.
  • The efficient running of the library depends upon the factors – Role of Librarian, Role of Teachers, Location of the Library room, Quality of Books.
  • The books for the school library should be selected with reference to the educational needs, vocational needs and recreational needs of the pupils.
  • Reference books and encyclopedias should be readily made available for teachers and pupils.
  • Adequate copies of important books should be secured.
  • There should be a library supply of current periodicals and newspapers , which would be useful to pupils and teachers.

Purpose of School Library

  • It provides self study and elf education
  • It supplements class work of students and increase pupil vocabulary
  • It broadens the out look of students by placing before a vast store of useful information.
  • It develops new interest in children and motivates them to write poems, stories, essays and plays.
  • It help pupil to improve their performance in debates
  • It gives them pleasure in leisure hours
  • It help children to maintain good discipline in their life.
  • It impart training to pupils in comprehension, note-making and keeping books clean.
  • It imparts training in punctuality by borrowing and returning books in time.
  • It develops the habit of silent reading.


Organization of School Library

  • Location of the library
  • Quality of books
  • Suitability of books
  • Librarian
  • Arrangement of the books
  • Issue of books
  • Class library
  • Reading rooms

How to encourage pupils to use the school library

  • Each student should asked to maintain a library note book.
  • Periods for library work should be provided in the time table.
  • Class library system should be encouraged.
  • Teachers should give talk on the importance of extra readings.
  • Book lovers club should be formed.


  • Laboratory provide help in making activity dominated teaching more successful.
  • Interest is created in the subjects of study.
  • In addition to a big room where experiments are performed, a lecture hall and a store room also be provided.
  • The size of there rooms should be determined according to the number of students, so that at least 3 square meters of space is available for work of each student.

Equipments for Physics Laboratory

  • Table for experiments
  • Proper arrangements for gas, gas burners and spirit lamps.
  • Wall almirahs and cupboards for keeping apparatus safely.
  • Fixed tables, preferably of stones, along the wall for keeping physical balance in a manner that students can work on them easily.
  • Apparatus and materials related to different experiments.
  • Proper arrangement of water-sink and tap.

Equipments for Chemistry Laboratory

  • Table for keeping equipments. There should be ample arrangements for drawers, gas, gas burners, water tapes and sinks attached to every table.
  • Arrangements for fresh air.
  • Glass cases for keeping chemical balances.
  • Adequate provision of wall cupboards and almirahs for keeping chemicals and apparatus.
  • Arrangements for preparing distilled water.
  • Apparatus and materials for different experiments.
  • Adequate number of microscopes.

Equipments for a Biology Laboratory

  • Tables for experiments. In these water tap, drawers and shelves should be provided.
  • Specimens of different creatures, charts, models and slide showing their life cycle.
  • Instruments for dissecting and handling of creatures and plants.
  • Almirahs for keeping different materials and apparatus.
  • Aquarium for keeping fish and water plants.
  • Arrangements for keeping plants out sides the laboratory.
  • An epidiascope and slide projector.
  • Specimen book for plants, flowers and leaves.


  • There should be a well equipped office in school in order to ensure effective administration of the school.
  • The office room should have filing cabinets and racks for keeping files in orderly manner.
  • Steel almirahs for keeping confidential papers and a small steel safe for keeping cash also necessary.

Maintenance of records

  • Maintenance of records is very important for school administration
  • The important records that maintain in school are:
    • Admission records
    • Attendance register
    • Fee registers
    • Time table records
    • Examination records
    • Corresponding records
    • Stock registers
    • Purchase register
    • Registers regarding parents
    • Progress records
    • Visitors book
    • Log book
    • School calendar

Curricular and co-curricular activities

  • Experience has shown that achieving all-round development of the learner is not possible with curricular activities alone.
  • The pupils have to provide with certain dynamic activities meant for all round development of the learner is called co-curricular activities.
  • Co-curricular activities are not directly part of the regular studies in the class rooms but at the same time they supplement the curricular experience.

Objectives of Co-curricular Activities

  • To promote physical and mental health.
  • To develop team spirit and social cohesion.
  • To inculcate love and a sense of dignity of work.
  • To develop aesthetic tastes.
  • To promote discipline.
  • To supplement academic work.
  • To develop positive attitude and value system.

Classification of co-curricular activities

  • Category I : Literary, cultural and Club Activities
    • These provide the pupils opportunities for creative expression and for nurturing their specific innate talents and interests.
      • Library activity
        • Debate
        • Creative writing
        • Elocution
        • Manuscript magazine
      • Cultural activity
        • Drama
        • Music
        • Dance
        • Drawing and painting
        • Sculpturing
        • Artistic embroidery
      • Club activity
        • Science club
        • Social science club
        • Mathematics club
        • Yung farmer's club
        • Natural club
        • Environmental club
        • Philatelic club
        • Health club
  • Category II: Outdoor activities
    • Games
    • Sports
    • Gymnastics
    • Yoga
    • Swimming
    • Scouts
    • N.C.C
    • Work experience
    • Gardening
    • First Aid
    • Junior Red Cross
    • National Service Scheme

Organization of Co-curricular Activities

  • Planning
  • Implementing
  • evaluating

Time table

  • Time table is the detailed plan showing the schedule of time allotment to various subjects and academic activities.
  • Usually timetable is prepared for a week, to be repeated.
  • All the work is carried out systematically in tune with the timetable.
  • The successful working of the school depends on a suitable timetable.

Need for a Timetable

  • Timetable is necessary for the proper management of the affairs of a school.
  • Through this the headmaster knows the work of every class and every teacher.
  • The timetable will help the headmaster in carrying out the work of the school effectively.
  • Headmaster will be able to arrange extra work for teachers if required.

Importance of timetable

  • Timetable ensures orderly work. It assign proper persons for particular classes during appropriate periods in a proper manner.
  • It save the time and energy of teachers and pupils by preventing duplication and overlapping.
  • It ensures right allocation of time for different subjects and activities, by giving proper weightage according to needs.
  • It ensures proper distribution of work among teachers.
  • It makes the work load of teachers balanced and equitable.
  • It inculcates habit of orderliness, steadiness, regularity and alertness among the teachers and pupils.
  • It helps to maintain discipline and order.

Content of Timetable

  • Time of beginning and ending of the school day.
  • Time of beginning and ending of each period.
  • Subjects and activities assigned a specific period.
  • Days on which and time during which each subject and each activity is to be handled.
  • Name of the teachers engaging each subject and each activity during respective periods.
  • Name of the teachers in charge of each division of each standard.
  • Room in which each class meets.
  • Details regarding the recess periods

Types of timetable

  • Class timetable
  • Teacher's timetable
  • Master timetable
  • Teacher's vacant period time table
  • Activities time table (time table for each school activity)
  • Room timetable showing the work, the class and the teacher in relation to each room.

timetable construction

  • The first thing is to be decided in the framing of a time table is to determine the number of working days in a week and duration of school hours.
  • All these are determined by Department of Education and also prescribes number of periods for each subject.
  • Timetable also depend on the type of school. Timetable in a basic school, or in a double shift school will be different from that in ordinary school.

Principles of timetable construction

  • Principle of fatigue
    • Each pupil has a warming-up stage , full-working stage and a falling-off stage, every day.
    • During first period happens warming-up, the second and third period full-working stage, The fourth period is falling-off period.
    • In the same manner, first period of the after noon is happens warming-up, second period is full-working-stage, and third period happens falling-off.
    • The best period for fatigue creating subject (subject like Mathematics and English) are the second and third periods in the morning and second period in the afternoon.
    • Mother tongue and other subjects do not cause much fatigue, the first and fourth periods in the forenoon and the fourth and third period in the afternoon can set for these.
  • Principle of variety
    • Student will feel bored and dull if they are taught the same subject for a number of periods continuously.
    • It is better not to have the same subject for two consecutive periods.
    • There should be a alternation of mental and physical tasks also.
  • Principle of justice
    • Work among the members of the staff should be equally distributed.
    • Unequal distribution of work may cause frustration.
    • Leisure periods should be judiciously distributed.
    • No teacher should be asked to teach a subject for which he is not qualified.
  • Principle of rest and recreation
    • Rest and recreation are essential for children. Hence provision should be made for that.
  • Principle of flexibility
    • The timetable should be flexible, and not rigid.
    • It should be a faithful servant and not a tyrant master.

Student's Council

  • Student's Council is formerly constituted body of students.
  • New educational ideas gives ample opportunities for students to actively take part in various curricular and co-curricular activities of the school.
  • Student's council can help teachers and school administrators in conducting literary activities, cultural functions, and sports.
  • Student's council can affectively take up the responsibilities of maintaining discipline in school.
  • By actively participating in the activities of student's council, students will get training to be a democratic citizen of the country.

School Complex

  • Clustering 0f 8 – 10 institution in a vicinity for the purpose of sharing resources is what we call a school complex.
  • There institutions can reinforce each other by exchanging resources, personnel, materials, teaching aids etc.
  • The expertise of teachers can be shared among the institution belonging to the school complex.
  • A complex can prepare and standardize achievement tests and conduct common examinations for all school in the complex.
  • Sharing of resources will help not only to reduce the expenditure but also rise the academic standards of the students.