Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
·         “It is the use of computer to assist in the presentation of instructional material to a student to monitor learning process or to select additional instructional material in accordance with the needs of individual learners”  - International Dictionary of Education
·         A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
·         Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.
·         CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process
·         CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction.

Typical CAI provides

·         text or multimedia content
·         multiple-choice questions
·         problems
·         immediate feedback
·         notes on incorrect responses
·         summarizes students' performance
·         exercises for practice
·         Worksheets and tests.
Types of Computer Assisted Instruction
·         Drill-and-practice
o   Drill and practice provide opportunities for students to repeatedly practice the skills that have previously been presented and that further practice is necessary for mastery.
·         Tutorial
o   Tutorial activity includes both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation.
·         Games
o   Game software often creates a contest to achieve the highest score and either beat others or beat the computer.
·         Simulation
o   Simulation software can provide an approximation of reality that does not require the expense of real life or its risks.
·         Discovery
o   Discovery approach provides a large database of information specific to a course or content area and challenges the learner to analyze, compare, infer and evaluate based on their explorations of the data.
·         Problem Solving
o   This approach helps children develop specific problem solving skills and strategies.
CAI – Its Operation
·         Before starting the programme, the student checks-in with the computer by displaying his identity number. This connects the learner with his part of the learning programme.
·         A computer package of information stored in the computer is present sequentially.
·         At the end of each small bit of information, the computer asks questions to test the learner.
·         If the learner supplies the correct answer, the programme moves on to the next steps.
·         If the answer is not correct, the computer gives error signal and the topic presented again and re-tested.
·         This process will continue till the end of the programme.
Advantages of CAI

·         One-to-one interaction
·         Great motivator
·         Freedom to experiment with different options
·         Immediate feedback to the answers elicited
·         Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace
·         Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learns
·         Individual attention
·         Learn more and more rapidly
·         Multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach
·         Self directed learning – students can decide when, where, and what to learn
·         Not affected human weakness
·         Easily evaluate learning

Limitations of CAI

·         May feel overwhelmed by the information and resources available
·         Over use of multimedia may divert the attention from the content
·         Learning becomes too mechanical
·         Non availability of good CAI packages
·     Lackof infrastructure
·     Expensive
·     Fails to appreciate the emotions of student
·     CAI Programmes do not automatically sole the psychological or educational    problems.