Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Value Education

·   Important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or what is desirable and what is not.
·   A value stands for ideals that provide men direction for leading a worthy life.
·   They are the guiding principles of life, which influences one’s physical, mental and social health.
·   Value includes all important beliefs, religious teaching, moral attitude and philosophies of life etc.
·   Values not only sustaining the society and culture but also bring about corresponding changes in the society and culture.
·   Values are desirable styles of thought and action that promote individual ad social development and well-being.
Value based Education
·   Kothari commission stressed the importance of value based education.
·   Values are caught rather than taught.
·   Value should be inculcated in the minds of student.
·   The study of moral and ethical values as a part of teaching learning process that make us a perfect man is called value based education.
·   Value and education are interrelated.
Need and importance of Value Based Education in the Modern age
·   For development of society and nation.
·   Values are guiding principle that shape our world outlook, attitude.
·   For moral upiftment of the child.
·   Need of the hour.
·   To promote fundamental values in children.
·   Training for responsible citizenship.
·   To understand national goals.
·   To improve socio-economic condition.
·   For inner development.
·   For self reliasation.
·   To improve overall qualities of life.

Types of Values
  • Universal Values:  These are values that there is nearly unanimous agreement as to the importance of them.  These would include Sanctity of human life, Peace,  and human dignity.
  • Instrumental Values:  These are values that can be used to get something else.  In other words the value is an instrument which allows you to get some other things.   Examples of these would include Progress (which allows leisure time),  Freedom (Through which we can get dignity and/or self actualization),  and Knowledge(which helps us get economic prosperity, and progress).
  • Intrinsic Values:   Something has intrinsic worth simply because of what it is and not necessarily what it will lead to or because of its acceptance.  Some possible examples of intrinsic values would include beauty,  artistic expression,  and happiness.  We value them because they are an important aspect of life.
  • Prerequisite Values:  These are values that are necessary before you can get to some bigger goal.  It is similar to the prerequisite course that you must take in order to get to the more advanced course.   Some good examples of this type of value include safety (which is needed before people can even think about having anything else),  Justice (which is needed before we can move onto equality),  or the common good (which must be honored if we can ever get to a state of peace).
  • Paramount Values:  Think of this type of value like you think of Paramount Studios with the large mountain.  It is the value which is above all other things.  Some examples of this might include freedom (which many people have given up their lives for and see as essential to a decent life) or sanctity of life (which if we do not value or have renders everything else worthless).
  • Operative Values:    This type of values is the ways that we make judgments on how to live the rest of our lives.  We use these values as the overarching and guiding principles which tell us what is always right and wrong.  These are things such as Integrity, Honesty, and Loyalty.
Kinds of Values
Values are various kind and are named according to their specifications
  • Aesthetic Value emerging from and related to arts such as dancing, sculpture, painting, dramatization, music ec.
  • Spiritual Value concerned with spirit as an ultimate nature of mater.
  • Moral Values related to ethical aspect of human being.
  • Social values concerning the welfare of society.
Hierarchy of Values.
        ·         Eternal Values
o    Values related to ‘Moksha’
o    Eg. self control, Ahimsa, Truthfulness etc.
·         Social Values
o    Values related to ‘Dharma’
o    Eg: Benefits to all, Concern for others, Co-operation, Integration, Equal Opportunity, etc.
·         Personal Values
o    Values related to personal development.
o    Eg: Punctuality, Regularity, Hard work, Discipline, tolerance, Simplicity, Respect for others, etc.

Source of Values
·   Religion
·   Literature
·   Culture – Truth, Beauty and Goodness related to Indian culture.
·   Constitution
·   Philosophy
·   Science
Values relevant to Human welfare
·         Love
·         Non-violence
·         Peace
·         Co-operation
Values related to Child’s need and development of personality
·      Love and Affection
·      Truth
·      Courage
·      Reverence to elders
·      Compassion
·      Respect for all religions
·      Dignity of manual work
·      Humanity
·      Purity in work, thought and action.
·      Tranquility of mind
·      Cleanness.
Values – List Developed by NCERT
The following values has been compiled by the NCERT in its publication entitled by ‘Documents on Social, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education’
1.     Abstinence
2.       Appreciation of cultural values of others
3.      Anti-Untouchability
4.     Citizenship
5.     Consideration for others
6.       Concern for others
7.      Co-operation
8.     Cleanliness
9.     Compassion
10.    Common cause
11.   Common good
12.  Courage
13.  Courtesy
14.    Curiosity
15.   Democratic decision making
16.  Devotion
17.  Dignity of the individual
18.    Dignity of the manual work
19.   Duty
20.  Discipline
21.  Endurance
22.    Equality
23.   Friendship
24.  Faithfulness
25.  Fellow-feeling
26.    Freedom
27.   Forward look
28.  Good manners
29.  Gentlemanliness
30.    Gratitude
31.   Honesty
32.  Helpfulness
33.  Humanism
34.    Hygienic living
35.   Initiative
36.  Integrity
37.  Justice
38.    Kindness
39.   Kindness to Animals
40.  Loyalty to duty
41.  Leadership
42.    National unity
43.   National consciousness
44.  Non –violence
45.  National integration
46.    Obedience
47.   Peace
48.  Proper utilization of time
49.  Punctuality
50.    Patriotism
51.   Purity
52.  Quest for knowledge
53.  Resourcefulness
54.    Regularity
55.   Respect for others
56.  Reverence for old age
57.  Sincerity
58.    Simple living
59.   Social justice
60.  Self-discipline
61.  Self-help
62.    Self-respect
63.   Self-confident
64.  Self-support
65.  Self duty
66.    Self-reliance
67.   Self-control
68.  Self restraint
69.  Social service
70.    Solidarity of mankind
71.   Sense of social responsibility
72.  Sense of discrimination between good and bad
73.  Socialism
74.    Sympathy
75.   Secularism and respect for all religion
76.  Spirit of equality
77.  Team work
78.    Truthfulness
79.   Tolerance
80.  Universal truth
81.  Universal love
82.  Value for national civic and property
Values enshrined in the Indian Constitution
·         Democracy is government of the people, by the people and for the people
·         Democracy believes in the following principles.
·         Self respect and dignity of personal freedom.
o    Freedom from fear, oppression, exploitation
o    It also provides freedom to live, to educate, to work and pursue religious values.
·         Equality
o    All men are equal before law.
o    Democracy believes in filling the individuals to appropriate programmes in accordance with their abilities and need, ignoring other considerations like caste, social status, sex etc.
·         Sharing purpose and decisions
o    Being more democratic warrants more opportunities for sharing all aspects of societal functions.
·         Every citizen has freedom to profess or preach the religion of his liking.
·         It guarantees religious freedom by article 25, 26 and 30 of the constitution.
·         “All that a secular state means is that parliament shall not be competent to impose any particular religion upon the rest of the people” – Dr. Abbedkar.
·         Socialism is a scheme of social organization which places the means or production and distribution in hands of community.
·         The main features of socialism are:
·         Aims at social justice.
·         Aims at equality.
·         Aims at establishing a classless society free from exploitation, oppression.
·         Aims at abolishing the capitalist system.
·         Aims at the active participation of the individual in the productive process of society.
·         Aims at establishing a society based on mutual co-operation and fellow feeling.
Equality of opportunities
·         Right to equality is fundamental right guaranteed to Indian Citizen.
·         There should not be any discrimination on ground of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth.
·         All are offered equal opportunities for employment.
·         Equal right to contest election and can enjoy equal right in all matters relating to politics.
·         All have equal right to join employment government private according to his qualification.
·         All are equal before the law.
Five core human values.
·         Indian culture propagated the value truth.
·         Ancient Indians were ready to scarify even their life for truth (Eg. Story of Harichandra)
·         Truth alone triumphs (satyameva Jayathe) has been the main slogan of our culture.
Righteous Conduct
·         Righteous Conduct was held in ancient India
·         Righteous conduct only can bring harmony in the society.
·         If all the people upheld the value of righteous conduct there will not be any problems in the society.
Non Violence
·         One of the basic foundations of Indian culture is Non-violence.
·         Ancient Philosophical schools such as Jainism, Buddhism believed in universal love and thus propagated the concept of Non-violence either directly or indirectly.
·         Gandhi was a profounder of the Non-Violence.
·         In this world of violence, regaining the value of non-violence only can save this country.
·         Hinduism believed in world peace.
·         ‘Loka samastha Sugino Bhavanthu’ was the slogan of ancient India.
·         Conflict between the nations can be curtailed only by regaining the value of peace.
·         There are many countries in this world which suffers from war; Peace only can save this country.
·         Love is one of the precious human values.
·         The saying ‘God is Love’ shows the importance of the value love.
·         Love brings prosperity and harmony in the society.
Methods and techniques of teaching Values
·      Direct Approach
o                 Study of values given as a separate course.
o                 Techniques used for this – story telling, Teaching of Biographies, Proverbs, Poems.
·      Indirect Approach
o  Desired values may be imparted to students as by-product of teaching some other curricular subjects or through any activities in the school.
·      Curricular Approach
o                 Value education is imparted curricular activities either directly or indirectly.
o                 If direct approach is followed for this purpose, separate syllabus and time table have to be provided.
o                 If indirect approach is to be followed, it has been given incidentally in the course of transacting curriculum.
·      Co-curricular Approach
o  Value education is given through co-curricular activities either directly or indirectly.
o  If direct approach is followed for the purpose, purposefully conduct co-curricular activities like debates, essay competition, story writing, drama etc.
o  If indirect approach is followed for the purpose, values are incidentally integrated by adopting appropriate types of co-curricular activities.
·      Integrated Approach
o  In this approach, the curriculum so arranged as to identify the plug points at which the value could be fused with the study of different subjects in a vary natural manner as an integral part of the learning material.
o                 All school subjects contain such situations.
·      Formal method
o  Values are directly taught through class room teaching with the help of text book or supplementary reading materials.
·      Informal Method
o  Students learn about different values incidentally by their own experience gained by living in the community or by involving in school programmes during out of school hours and inculcate values casually.
·      Non formal Method
o  Through Books, Radio, TV, News Paper and other Mass Medias
Programmes for developing Values. (Direct Input)
·         Silent sitting
·         Story telling
·         Community prayer
·         Group singing – devotional songs, Patriotic songs, Marching songs
·         Health and cleanliness programmes
·         SUPW
·         Cultural programmes
·         Recreational activities
·         Sports and Games
·         Scout and Guides
·         National Service Scheme (NSS)
·         NCC
·         Morning Assembly
·         Community Services
·         Mock parliament
·         Tour
·         Field trips.
Value Crisis – Responsible Factors
·         Impact of Western Philosophy
·         Explosion of Scientific Knowledge
·         Rapid growth of Industrialization and Urbanization
·         Impact of reaction against spiritualism
·         Growth of the Science of Psychology
·         Impact of the Materialistic outlook
·         Defective curriculum and teaching learning process
Recommendations of various commissions of education, on values (In India)
·         The Hartog committee (1929)
o    Religious instruction should be given in common school outside the school hours.
·         The Central Advisory Board of Education (1946
o    Felt the importance of religious and moral education.
·         The University Education Commission (1948- 49)
o    Headed by Dr.S. Radhakrishnan recommended that religious and moral education should be given in the educational content at the University level.
·         The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
o    Headed by Dr. Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliyar suggested that religious and moral instruction sbould be given in school out side school hours on voluntary basis.
·         The Committee on Religion and Moral Instruction (1959)
o    Headed by Sriprakash disagreed with the views of the Central Advisory Board of Education and recommended that moral and spiritual values should be imparted in all educational institutions.
·         The Committee on Emotional Integration (1961)
o    Headed by Dr. Sampurananda recommended that research on various topics related to different religions should be undertaken at the university level.
·         The Indian Education Commission(1964-66)
o    Headed by Prof. D.S. Kothari recommended for the direct and indirect teaching of social, moral and spiritual values to our children and urged the need for the development of suitable literature on all there values.
·         The committee of Members of Parliament of National Policy of Education (1967)
o    Recommended that moral, social and spiritual values should be cultivated through curricular and co-curricular activities in school.
·         The curriculum frame work developed by NCERT (1975)
o    Mentioned that the instruction in Social Science should promote the values and ideals of humanism, secularism, socialism and Democracy.
·         A Policy Frame for Education over the next 10 years (1978- 87)
o    Headed by Justice V.M. Tarkunde in his document called ‘Education for our People’ emphasis the importance of Value oriented education.