Thursday, September 27, 2012

Educational Management

Management – Meaning
·         The collective body of those who manage or direct any enterprises.
·         Management means steering an organization towards specified objectives.
·         Management in simple terms means the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.
·          Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management
·         Management comprises (factions of management)
1.     planning,
2.     organizing
3.     Controlling
4.     decision making
5.     Motivating, Leadership
6.     Communicating
7.     Performance
8.      Appraisal
9.     Linking rewards with performance
10.   Human resource Development 
1.     Planning
·         most basic and extensive process in management
·         it means deciding in advance what result are to be achieved and what actions are to be taken for the same and who should take such actions, where , when and how.
·         it is the process of grouping people and activities at the disposal of an organization.
·         in a judicious manner, people and activities have to be grouped to produce the best results by following the most appropriate sequence of events.
3.     Controlling
·         Means checking the progress of the plans and correcting any deviation that might occur along way of implementation of plans.
·         Control ensure quality, appropriateness of means and action.
4.     Decision making
·         This means converting intentions to action plans on a rational basis, on the basis of a perceived relationship between actions and outcomes.
·         Decision making is the essence of all management.
5.     Motivating
·         This means the continuous process of generation sufficient interest to each individual to carry out actions that can be benefit the organization.
·         As strategies for motivation both monetary and non-monetary rewards are used.
6.      Leadership
·         It is a process of making ordinary people to extra ordinary things which they would not accomplish if left alone.
·         Leadership involves skills in inspiring, integrating divergent interest, building self confident and morale etc.
7.     Communicating
·         Communication is aimed at making others understand what they are expected to do and at ensuring whether they are doing it or not.
8.     Performance Appraisal
·         Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating the contribution on an employee for the purpose of determining his rewards and developmental needs.
·         Performance appraisal can done through:
o    Establishing acceptable levels of performance in qualitative and quantitative terms.
o    Adopting effective methods of assessment.
o    Using performance appraisal data for various managerial objectives
o    Giving feed back to the employee to help him to modify his behavior in the organization.
9.     Linking rewards with performance
·         This means motivate employees to perform better by giving rewards to them.
·         Where such linking is absent, fall in standards and failure to achieve excellence in performance are natural outcomes.
10.   Human resource Development
o    This is the process of helping employee to develop their competence in a continuous manner, for the benefit of themselves, their organization, and the society.
o    Career planning, career guidance, setting of standards for performance, performance appraisal, feedback on performance, training programmes etc. are some strategies for human recourse development.   
Management – Definitions
·         “Management is principally the task of planning, coordinating , motivating and controlling the effort of others towards a specific objective. Management is what management does. It is the task of planning, executing and controlling.”                   – James, L.Lundy   
·         Management is the distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, activating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of human being and other resources”
                                                                 – George, R.Terry   
Educational Management
  • Managing an educational system to extract  maximum out put.
  • The management in education field.
Factors influenced the development of Educational management
·         Growing complexity of educational enterprise
·         Modern technological development
·         Ever changing pattern of education
·         Rising cost of education
·         Increasing politicization of education
·         Social changes
Aspects of Educational Management (5M’s)
·         Management of Men
o    This include staff, student and their parents, members of the community, members of the governing body and developmental officials.
·         Management of Money
o    This concerns with finance.
·         Management of machines
o    This include different kind of machinery for carrying out programmes related to work experience and Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW)
·         Management of Material
o    This includes a variety of material in the form of furniture and stationery etc. exist in the educational institutions.
·         Management of Method
o    This means organization of ideas and principles into school system-curriculum, methods of teaching
Management – Principles
·         Principle of cooperation
·         Principle of coordination
·         Principle of democratic philosophy
·         Principle of equality
·         Principle of freedom
·         Principle of flexibility
·         Principle of human relations
·         Principle of justice
·         Principle of leadership
·         Principle of optimism
·         Principle of optimum utility
·         Principle of professional growth of the staff
·         Principle of recognition of individual worth
·         Principle of sharing responsibility
·         Principle of values
·         Principle of budgeting
·         Principle of economy
Application of the principles of management to education
·         Optimum utilization of man and material
·         Management action involves not only the most use of the material resources but also of human resources.
·         Optimum utilization of man and material implies the identification of available resources in the community maintaining available resources and developing accountability towards control and monitoring resources.
·         The human elements in management of education includes
o    Children
o    Parents
o    Educational planners and administrators
o    Teachers
o    Other employers
·         By coordinating the functions of these human elements in a proper way we can have the optimum utilization of human resources.
·         The  material element includes
o    Money
o    Buildings
o    School ground
o    equipments
  • Supervision is a planned programme for improvement of institutions.
  • Supervision is a planned programme for improvement of institutions.
  • This is actually a study of school conditions, to discover problems or defects of the students,teachers, equipment, school curriculum, objectives and methods.
  • This could be done via actual observation, educational tests, conference, questionnaires and checklists etc. 
Aims of supervision
·         To provide professional leadership to educational institutions so as to improve their work and put them on right direction and path.
·         To set suitable goals for educational institutions.
·         To apprise the work of educational institutions and to give valid criticism
·         To offer technical service to teachers in the form of instructional aids and suggestions.
·         To promote professional growth of teachers by providing in-service training to them.
Types of supervision
·         Corrective type
o    Here the intention is to find out what is wrong with the teaching learning process.
·         Preventive type
o    Under this the supervisor anticipates the difficulties of headmasters or teachers, and help them to avoid these difficulties.
·         Creative type
o    This aims at liberating teachers fro set procedures and makes him self-reliant and enthusiastic in his work